Primer On Local Government Fragmentation and Regionalism in the Pittsburgh
University Center for Social and Urban
Research, University of Pittsburgh,
●Articles About Pittsburgh ●Books ●Academic Articles
● Legal Issues and
In 2002 The Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area had a
total of 905 local governments. These are divided up into general purpose county
and municipal governments but also include school districts and special
district governments with limited mandates.
898 (+7 County
Click on number for a list of individual governments,
mailing addresses and web addresses (where available). Where governments cross
county borders they are listed only once in the county where the greater share
of their population resides. Please note: this data is derived entirely from
Census Bureau data, requests to update address or web pages should be directed
to the Governments Division of the U.S. Census Bureau.
What do Special District Governments do? See: List of Pittsburgh Region
Special Districts Grouped by Primary Function or Summary of local governments by
type and MSA
How does the Pittsburgh Region compare to other regions?
How Different Are Pittsburgh Municipalities? See: Summary Demographics of Pittsburgh
Reading List - Pittsburgh Specific References ( for
more general topics you may also want to look at my policy document collection):
- Metropolitan Organization: The
Allegheny County Case. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental
Relations, February 1992
Hope: Voluntary Disincorporation
in Allegheny County. Frank J. Lucchino..Controller, County of Allegheny.
Undated (this is just the first few pages of this report. If you need the
whole report give me a call.)
Pennsylvania's Local Governments - Implications for the Mon Valley.Christine
Altenburger, Kevin Kearns, B. Guy Peters, Prepared for the President's
Conference on Mill Towns, May 5-6, 1988.
Pittsburgh's Failed Industry Targeting Strategy of the 1960s by Morton
Coleman, David Houston and Edward K. Muller. (note: Why is a skybus
report here? Well, if you read into the history, it was the fear of
Metropolitanism in Allegheny County that was a major factor in scuttling
the Skybus project… the effect of which has rippled through transportation
planning to this day in the Pittsburgh region.)
- COMPAC 21 - Preparing
Allegheny County for the 21st Century. A Report to the Allegheny
County Board of Commissioners by the Committee to Prepare Allegheny County
for the 21st Century. January 1996
- Final Report and Proposed
Home Rule Charter, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Allegheny County
Study Commission. March 15, 1974. pages 1-30 and pages 31-60.
- Transforming the
Governance of Western Pennsylvania from Town to Region. Chapter 8 of The
State of the Region Report: Economic, Demographic, and Social Conditions
in SWPA. University Center for Social and Urban Research. University
of Pittsburgh September 1999
- The Impact of the Earned
Income Tax on Locational Decisions and the City of Pittsburgh, Department
of City Planning, City of Pittsburgh. April 1987;Part 2; Part3
v. City of Pittsburgh, 207 U.S. 161 (1907) 207 U.S. 161 (the case and
Supreme Court ruling that allowed the annexation of Allegheny City by the
City of Pittsburgh)
A Regional City With a Local Tax Base. Executive
Summary. Pennsylvania Economy League, 1982.
- Why the Federated Pittsburgh
Plan Failed to Carry: Defeated Plan to Be Resubmitted, The American
City. Vol. 38, August 1929.
- Pittsburgh Plans the World's
Most Complete Experiment in Federated City Government, By Thomas H.
Reed, Director, Bureau of Government, University
of Michigan, The American
City. Vol. 36, May 1927. pp.
- Pittsburgh - The World's
Third Federated City, By Rowland A. Egger, Department of Political
Science, University of Michigan
The American City. Vol. 38, June 1929. pp. 120-121.
dispute has delayed city's expansion efforts. By Christopher Briem. Pittsburgh
Business Times. April 16, 2004
politicians thwarted earlier city/county merger. By Alan Robertson. Pittsburgh
Business Times. April 16, 2004
Reading List - General References (Books):
Consolidation and Its Alternatives: Reshaping the Local Government
Landscape. (July 2004) by Jered B. Carr (Editor), and Richard C.
Feiock (Editor). M.E. Sharpe
Governance Without Metropolitan Government.(2004) by Don Phares
Studies of City-County Consolidation.(2004) by Suzanne M. Leland
(Editor), Kurt M. Thurmaier (Editor)
Metropolitan Chase: Politics and Policies in Urban America (2003) by
E. Terrence Jones
Change in the Metropolis, John J. Harrigan, 2003
Metropolitics: The New Suburban Reality(2002), by Myron Orfield.
Without Suburbs, a Census 2000 Update (2003). David Rusk.
Regional Governing of Metropolitan America.(2002) by David Miller
on Regionalism.(2000) by Bruce Katz
Government and Governance: Theoretical Perspectives, Empirical Analysis,
and the Future. (1999) by G. Ross Stephens, Nelson Wikstrom
Politics : America in a Post-City Age (1996). by H . V. Savitch
(Editor), Ronald K. Vogel
Excellence: Governing Together to Compete Globally and Flourish Locally
(1996). By William R. Dodge
Glories: Municipal Reform in the Southwest (1996), by Amy Bridges, .
- The Fractured
Metropolis: Political Fragmentation and Metropolitan Segregation.
Weiher, Gregory R. 1991.
Politics: Governing Atlanta (1989) by Clarence N. Stone.
Governance, Governing Organizations (1988) by Colin S.J. Campbell, B. Guy
twentieth-century American city : problem, promise, and reality.
(1986) by Jon C. Teaford
Unheralded Triumph: City Government in America (1984) 1870-1900. by
Jon C. Teaford
Limits (1981).by Paul E. Peterson
and Suburb: The Political Fragmentation of Metropolitan America 1850-1970 (1979)
by Jon C. Teaford
Politics: A reader. (1971) Michael N. Danielson(editor).
patterns in city-county consolidation referenda: Case studies of Memphis
and Nashville, Tennessee
(1971) by Craig R Humphrey. Brown
Politics and the Commuter Crisis. (1965) Danielson
Fiscal Implications of Metropolitanism (Brookings Institution, Washington,
D.C. Reprint. 61) (1962) by Harvey
Government of Metropolitan Areas. (1930) by Paul Studenski.
Government in the United States.
(1926) by Thomas Harrison Reed.
Reading List - General References (Articles):
Evidence on Government Competition. Lori Taylor. Federal Reserve Bank
Case for Government Consolidation. Prepared for Syracuse 20/20. John
F. Freie. September 2005
Effects of City County Consolidation: A Review of the Literature. A
Report Prepared by the Indiana Policy Review Foundation, Fort Wayne,
Indiana (www.inpolicy.org) for the Marion
County Consolidation Study Commission. Indiana General Assembly. Project
Director:Samuel R. Staley. November 16, 2005.
of “Democracy”, “Welfare” and “Justice” in Discourses on Metropolitan
Governance: The Social Constructivist Challenge to the Public Choice
School. Discussion paper. By Joachim Blatter. University of Konstanz
Consolidation and the Rebuilding of Image: The Fiscal Lessons from
Indianapolis's UniGov Program, by Mark S. Rosentraub, State and Local
Government Review - Volume 32 (2000),
of Pragmatic Reform: A Reassessment of the Jacksonville Experience. By
Bert E. Swanson. State and Local
Government Review - Volume 32 (2000),
Consolidation versus Metropolitan Governance in Louisville. By H.V.
Savitch and Ronald K. Vogel. State and Local Government Review - Volume 32
- Looking for
Regionalism in all of the Wrong Places. Manuel Pastor Jr. University of California, Santa Cruz. Also
in URBAN AFFAIRS REVIEW, Vol. 36, No. 6, July 2001 747-782
Consolidation of City and County Governments. Pat Hardy. Metropolitan
Technical Advisory Service, The University of Tennessee, 2005.
- Report of the Shenango
County Intergovernmental Study Commission. November 2003.
- Husock, Howard. "Let's Break Up
the Big Cities." City Journal (Winter
Merger: A Competitive Vision for the Regional City of Louisville."
Center of Urban and Metropolitan Policy, The Brookings Institution (July
without a City: Power and City-County Consolidation, by H. V.
Savitch, University of Louisville,
Ronald K. Vogel, University of Louisville. Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 39,
No. 6, 758-790 (2004)
Wheeling And Ohio County: A review of city-county consolidation (“Unigov”)
experiences regarding central city health and regional economic growth
(revised December 11, 2004) prepared for HOPEFUL CITY. David Rusk.
Inter-City Competition: Victoria Basolo. University of California at
Irvine and David Lowery University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Undated working paper.
Decentralization: A Remedy for Corruption? By G. Gulsun Arikan. University
of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. April 2000.
Conduct, And Performance In The Local Public Sector Randall W. Eberts And
Timothy J. Gronberg. National Tax Journal, Vol. 43, no. 2, (June,
1990), pp. 165-73
Consolidation and Diseconomies of Scale: Summary of Selected Literature.
Chris Pineda, Government Innovators Network
Maximizing Effective Partnerships for Economic Development. Economic
Development America. Economic Development Administration. Spring 2004.
- Local Government
Reorganization In West Virginia. David G. Temple. Undated.
Fragmentation as Barrier to Equal Opportunity. John A. Powell and Kathleen
M. Graham. Chapter 7 in Rights at Risk: Equality in an Age of Terrorism.
Citizens Commission on Civil Rights, Biennial Report, 2002. pp. 79-97..
the Relationship Between Metropolitan Planning Effort and Community
Prosperity. Joyce N. Levine, Department of Urban and Regional Planning
Jackson State University. November 2003
- Collective Individualism: Deconstructing
the Legal City, Georgette C. Poindexter. University of Pennsylvania Law
Review 607 (1997)).
- Does City-County
Consolidation Save Money?,
Campbell, Richard W. and Sally Coleman Selden Policy Notes, vol. 1,
no. 2, March 2000. Carl Vinson Institute of Government, The University
of Georgia, Athens,
- City Bound:
Political Science and the American Metropolis by Michael N. Danielson
and Paul G. Lewis. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 1, 203-220
- Cooperation not
Consolidation: The Answer for Milwaukee Government. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute
Report. November 2002.
- The Good
of the Many Outweighs the Good of the One: Regional Cooperation instead of
Individual Competition in the United States and Western Europe? Linda McCarthy. Journal of Planning Education and
Research.2003; 23: 140-152
- Who Becomes Involved in
Findings from County Officials
in 25 Communities, Carr, Jered B. and Richard
C. Feiock State
and Local Government Review. vol. 34, no. 2 (Spring 2002), pp 78-94.
- One Region, One Future:
A Report on Regionalism. The Greater Baltimore Committee. July 1997.
Frank P. Bramble, Donald P. Hutchinson, Mark K. Josepp, Carl W. Stearn.
Consolidation: An Idea Whose Time Has Come?, Kenefake, Scott M. Kansas
Government Journal. August 2003.
- Central City
Decline: Regional or Neighborhood Solutions? by Richard Voith. Federal
Reserve Bank of Philadelphia
Business Review. March/April 1996.
- Should Philadelphia's
Suburbs Help their Central City? by Bob Inman. Federal Reserve Bank of
Philadelphia Business Review.
Local Government Cooperation in Urban Regions . James A. Visser, The American Review of
Public Administration, Vol. 32, No. 1, 40-65 (2002)
Inter-City Competition: An Alternative Approach. Victoria Basolo, University
of California at Irvine
and David Lowery. University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill
- The Portland Region:
Where Cities and Suburbs Talk to Each Other, and Often Agree. Housing
Policy Debate. Vol. 8. Issue 1. Fannie Mae Foundation. 1997. pp. 11-51.
governance in Germany, Dietrich Fürst, University
Governance: The Implications of Government Organization.in Metropolitan
Areas, DeVoe Moore
Center Critical Issues
Symposium, October 4-5 2002
a New Regionalism: Rebuilding the Urban Community. By David Rusk,
(Washington D.C., Progressive Policy Institute: 1993).
Through Partnerships? Metropolitan Planning Since ISTEA, Todd Goldman and
Elizabeth Deakin. Berkeley
Planning Journal 14 (2000): 46-75
- Incentives, Entrepreneurs,
and Boundary Change:A Collective Action Framework, Richard C. Feiock,
Jered B. Carr
Through the Back Door: Social Equity Through Regional Government. by
Scott Bollens. in Housing Policy Debate. Vol.13 No.4. 2003
- Cooperation Not
Consolidation, The Answer for Milwaukee Governance, Policy Research
Institute Report Wisconsin
November 2002 Volume 15, Number 8
- Private Incentives and
Academic Entrepreneurs: The Promotion of City/County Consolidation.
Richard C. Feiock and Jered B. Carr
- A Reassessment Of
City/County Consolidation: Economic Development Impacts, Richard C.
Feiock And Jered B. Carr
- City-County Consolidation:
A Qualitative Comparative Analysis Approach. by Linda S. Johnson &
Richard C. Feiock
American Metropolitan Planning Reexamined, Donald N. Rothblatt, Urban
And Regional Planning Department, San Jose State University, November 1998
Fiscal Mobility and Efficiency. Keith Dowding and Thanos Mergoupis.
Journal of Politics November 2003
Taxation and the Size of Government: Evidence from Swiss State and Local
Governments by Lars P. Feld, Gebhard Kirchgassner, Christoph A.
Schaltegger, Swiss Federal Tax Administration,
- Governance in Erie
County. A Foundation for Understanding and Action. The Governance
Project. State University
of New York at
Regionalism: Beyond Individual Competition.Reviews of Economic
Development Literature and Practice. Economic Development
Administration.by Linda McCarthy. University
of Toledo. 2000
The Creation of Urban Dysfunction & Strategies for Recreating
Metropolitan Communities. Institute on Race and Poverty Research.
University of Minnesota Law
- Elements of a
Framework for Regional Decisionmaking in California. September 2002.
and Haurin,-Donald-R. Tiebout Revisited: Redrawing Jurisdictional
Boundaries Journal-of-Urban-Economics; 42(3), November 1997, pp.366-76.
- Rethinking Local
Government. New Orleans Commission on Government Reorganization.
County Consolidation Study Commission, meeting minutes August 10,
Local Government Boundary Problem in Metropolitan Areas. By Richard
Briffault. Stanford Law Review, Vol. 48, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 1115-1171
John D., "Tiebout? Or Not Tiebout? The Market Metaphor and America's
Devolution Debate," Journal of Economic Perspectives 11 (Fall 1997)
Kumbler and Brigette Schwab. (2007) New regionalism in five Swiss
metropolitan areas: An assessment of inclusiveness, deliberation and
democratic accountability. European Journal of Political Research 46:4,
Kipfer. (2004) "Metropolitics" and the Quest for a New
Regionalist Corporatism in the United States: Comparative Notes and
Critical Comments. Antipode 36:4, 740–752
Morin and Jill Hanley. (2004) Community economic development in a context
of globalization and metropolization: a comparison of four North American
cities. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 28:2, 369–383
Basolo and Dorian Hastings. (2003) Obstacles to Regional Housing
Solutions: A Comparison of Four Metropolitan Areas. Journal of Urban
Affairs 25:4, 449–472
Swanstrom (2001) What We Argue About When We Argue About Regionalism.
Journal of Urban Affairs 23 (5), 479–496.
Ostrom, Charles M. Tiebout, and Robert Warren, "The Organization of
Government in Metropolitan Areas: A Theoretical Inquiry," American
Political Science Review 55 (1961), 831-842
M. Tiebout. Economies of Scale and Metropolitan Governments. The Review of
Economics and Statistics, Vol. 42, No. 4. (Nov., 1960), pp. 442-444.
Paul M. “Metropolitan Restructuring and Urban Policy.” Stanford Law &
Policy Review. Revitalizing America’s
Cities: Searching for Solutions. Volume 8:2. Summer 1997.
George A. 1992. “Local Government Structure And Performance - Lessons From
America?” Public Administration. 70: 333-357.
Governance Structure and Income Growth. Kathryn Foster and Arthur Nelson.
Journal of Urban Affairs. Vol. 21 No.3 1999. pp. 309-324.